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Congenital Glaucoma: Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment

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Written by- Gina Walters
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Congenital Glaucoma, or Pediatric Glaucoma, is a rare but significant eye condition affecting infants.

It occurs as a result of optic nerve damage due to high fluid pressure in the eye. This condition has been present since birth and can lead to permanent loss of vision if left untreated.

It is usually detected by doctors between 3 and 6 months but may not show signs initially. It can be diagnosed as late as age 3.

This article examines the origins, symptoms, underlying causes, and treatment options of Congenital Glaucoma.

What is Congenital Glaucoma

Congenital Glaucoma is an eye condition typically present at birth or develops within the first few years of life. It is a rare type of Glaucoma that affects 1 in 10,000 to 30,000 live births.

It involves increased pressure within the eye due to an abnormality in the development of the eye’s drainage system. 

This leads to insufficient fluid drainage, which can cause high eye pressure or increased intraocular pressure (IOP). 

If not addressed on time, this Glaucoma type may result in vision impairment. 

It’s crucial to identify symptoms as soon as possible and find the right therapy, which may involve medication or surgery. 

Early diagnosis is necessary to manage this condition and effectively preserve the affected individuals’ vision.

Wondering whether Glaucoma causes blindness or not? Read our article: Does Glaucoma Cause Blindness? Understanding the Risk and Prevention

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  • Congenital Glaucoma symptoms

    water-in-eyesSource: bunyaritklinsukhonphotos
    Excess water in eye

    Congenital Glaucoma may cause enlarged and cloudy corneas, light sensitivity, excessive tearing, and noticeable discomfort in infants.

    Timely intervention is important for recognizing these symptoms early. Let us discuss the signs of Congenital Glaucoma:

    • Enlarged corneas: The clear front surface of the eye may appear larger than normal
    • Cloudiness of the cornea: The cornea may have a hazy or cloudy appearance
    • Frequent blinking: Infants with this condition may blink more frequently than usual
    • Excessive tearing: Babies with Congenital Glaucoma may produce more tears than normal
    • Light sensitivity: Congenital Glaucoma may cause sensitivity to light and discomfort in bright environments
    • Discomfort or irritability: The infant may display signs of discomfort, such as rubbing their eyes or showing signs of irritation
    • Redness in the eye: The white part of the eye may have a red or bloodshot appearance

    Awareness of these Glaucoma symptoms and seeking immediate medical attention is essential. Specialized care is necessary for optimal outcomes.

    Suggestion:
    Infants at risk for Congenital Glaucoma should have regular eye exams as part of routine healthcare.

    Causes of Congenital Glaucoma

    Congenital Glaucoma is primarily caused by a developmental abnormality in the eye’s drainage system, known as the trabecular meshwork. 

    This meshwork regulates the outflow of aqueous humor, the fluid that helps maintain eye pressure

    Abnormalities in the development of the drainage system can cause impaired fluid drainage, which may result in increased intraocular pressure.

    The potential causes of Congenital Glaucoma are:

    • The build-up of fluid (aqueous humor) inside the eye
    • Genetic factors
    • Birth defects in ocular angle
    • Underdeveloped cells, tissues

    The cause also depends on the type of Glaucoma, which include Primary Congenital Glaucoma and Secondary Congenital Glaucoma.

    Primary Congenital Glaucoma is caused by abnormal development of the anterior chamber angle structures. 

    Secondary Congenital Glaucoma is often linked to various ocular and systemic syndromes, as well as surgical aphakia (absence of the lens).

    The condition may be inherited from families or occur sporadically without a clear familial pattern. 

    Certain gene mutations are linked to Congenital Glaucoma, suggesting a genetic factor in many cases.

    Gender is another risk factor, as this condition is more common in males than females. 

    Congenital Glaucoma involves multiple factors, and ongoing research aims to understand its causes.

    Recommended read: Learn about other potential causes of the various types of Glaucoma — Uncovering Glaucoma Causes: A Comprehensive Guide

    Warning:
    Congenital Glaucoma is often hereditary. If a family member has a history of Congenital Glaucoma, it is important to be observant of potential signs in newborns.

    Congenital Glaucoma treatment

    Eye checkupSource: Pixelshot
    Diagnosis of Congenital Glaucoma

    The treatment of Congenital Glaucoma varies based on the severity of the condition. 

    Glaucoma eye drops or oral medications are the first-line treatment for lower intraocular pressure. However, more severe cases of this condition may require surgical intervention.

    Procedures like trabeculotomy and goniotomy may be used to create new drainage pathways. 

    Trabeculectomy is another surgery that helps form an additional channel for fluid outflow. 

    Tube shunt implantation and cyclophotocoagulation can also be considered.

    Regular visits to an ophthalmologist are essential to monitor progress. 

    Early diagnosis and treatment are critical for managing Congenital Glaucoma and preserving vision.

    Recommended read: Learn how to manage Glaucoma in — A Guide to Glaucoma Treatment Options

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    Summing up

    Congenital Glaucoma is a rare eye condition that affects 1 in 10,000 to 30,000 infants in Western countries.

    Although Congenital Glaucoma is rare, it is usually severe and demands specialized management.

    The symptoms include enlarged corneas, cloudiness in the cornea, light sensitivity, and eye discomfort. 

    The primary cause of Congenital Glaucoma is damage to the eye’s drainage system, usually due to genetic mutations.

    Early detection and correct treatment can prevent the progression of this condition, helping preserve vision.

    Frequently Asked Questions

    What is the cause of Congenital Glaucoma?

    The primary cause of Congenital Glaucoma is damage to the eye’s drainage system due to genetic mutations.

    What are the signs of Congenital Glaucoma?

    The signs of Congenital Glaucoma include enlarged corneas, excessive tearing, light sensitivity, and frequent blinking.

    When does Congenital Glaucoma start?

    Congenital Glaucoma is typically diagnosed at birth or within the first few years of life.

    What is the best treatment for Congenital Glaucoma?

    The treatment for Congenital Glaucoma includes medications and surgical procedures depending on the individual case.

    Can you cure Congenital Glaucoma?

    Congenital Glaucoma is not always curable. However, early intervention and appropriate treatment can effectively manage the condition and help preserve vision.

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